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Ghana's Constitution In The Fourth Republic

THE CONSTITUTION OF THE REPUBLIC OF GHANA

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    1. The Sovereignty of Ghana resides in the people of Ghana in whose name and for whose welfare the powers of government are to be exercised in the manner and within the limits laid down in this Constitution.
    2. This Constitution shall be the supreme law of Ghana and any other law found to be inconsistent with any provision of this Constitution shall, to the extent of the inconsistency, be void.
    1. A person who alleges that -
      1. an enactment or anything contained in or done, under the authority of that or any other enactment; or
      2. any act or omission of any person;
      is inconsistent with, or is in contravention of a provision of this Constitution, may bring an action in the Supreme Court for a declaration to that effect.
  1. The Supreme Court shall, for the purposes of a declaration under clause (1) of this article, make such orders and give such directions as it may consider appropriate for giving effect, or enabling effect to be given, to the declaration so made.
  2. Any person or group of persons to whom an order or direction is addressed under clause (2) of this article by the Supreme Court, shall duly obey and carry out the terms of the order or direction.
  3. Any person or group of persons to whom an order or direction is addressed under clause (2) of this article by the Supreme Court, shall duly obey and carry out the terms of the order or direction.
  4. Failure to obey or carry out the terms of an order or direction made or given under clause (2) of this article constitutes a high crime under this Constitution and shall, in the case of the President or the Vice President, constitute a ground for removal from office under this Constitution.
  5. A person convicted of a high crime under clause (4) of this article shall-
    1. be liable to imprisonment not exceeding ten years without the option of a fine; and
    2. not be eligible for election, or for appointment, to any public office for ten years beginning with the date of the expiration of the term of imprisonment.
    1. Parliament shall have no power to enact a law establishing a one-party state.
    2. Any activity of a person or group of persons which suppress or seeks to suppress the lawful political activity of any person or any class of persons, or persons generally is unlawful.
    3. Any person who-
      1. by himself or in concert with others by any violent or other unlawful means, suspends or overthrows or abrogates this Constitution or any part of it, or attempts to do any such act; or
      2. aids and abets in any manner any person referred to in paragraph (a) of this clause; commits the offence of high treason and shall, upon conviction, be sentenced to suffer death.
    4. All citizens of Ghana shall have the right and duty at all times-
      1. to defend this Constitution, and in particular, to resist any person or group of persons seeking to commit any of the acts referred to in clause (3) of this article; and
      2. to do all in their power to restore this Constitution after it has been suspended, overthrown, or abrogated as referred to in clause (3) of this article.
    5. Any person or group of persons who suppresses or resists the suspension, overthrow or abrogation of this Constitution as referred to in clause (3) of this article, commits no offence.
    6. Where a person referred to in clause (5) of this article is punished for any act done under that clause, the punishment shall, on the restoration of this Constitution, be taken to be void from the time it was imposed and he shall, from that time, be taken to be absolved from all liabilities arising out of the punishment.
    7. The Supreme Court shall, o application by or on behalf of a person who has suffered any punishment or loss to which clause (6) of this article relates, award him adequate compensation, which shall be charged on the Consolidated Fund, in respect of any suffering or loss incurred as a result of he punishment.

Territories of Ghana

    1. The sovereign State of Ghana is a unitary republic consisting of those territories comprised in the regions which, immediately before the coming into force of this Constitution, existed in Ghana including the territorial sea and the air space.
    2. Parliament may by law provide for the delimitation of the territorial sea, the contiguous zone, the exclusive economic zone and the continental shelf of Ghana.
    1. Subject to the provisions of this article, the President may by constitutional instrument ­
      1. create a new region;
      2. alter the boundaries of a region; or
      3. provide for the merger of two or more regions
    2. If the President, upon a petition being presented to him and on the advice of the Council of State, is satisfied that there is a substantial demand for -
      1. the creation of a new region
      2. the alteration of the boundaries of a region, whether or not the alteration involves the creation of a new region;or
      3. the merger of any two or more regions;he shall, acting in accordance with the advice of the Council of State, appoint a commission of inquiry to inquire into the demand and to make recommendations on all the factors involved in the creation, alteration or merger.
    3. If, notwithstanding that a petition has not been presented to him, the President is, on the advice of the Council of State, satisfied that the need has arisen for taking any of the steps referred to in paragraphs (a), (b) and (c) of clause (1) of this article, he may, acting in accordance with the advice of the Council of State, appoint a commission of inquiry to inquire into the need and to make recommendations on all the factors involved in the creation, alteration or merger.
    4. Where a commission of inquiry appointed under clause (2) or (3) of this article finds that there is the need and a substantial demand for the creation, alteration or merger referred to in either of those clauses, it shall recommend to the President that a referendum be held, specifying the issues to be determined by the referendum and the places where the referendum should be held.
    5. The President shall refer the recommendations to the Electoral Commission, and the referendum shall be held in a manner prescribed by the Electoral Commission.
    6. An issue referred for determination by referendum under clauses (4) and (5) shall not be taken to be determined by the referendum unless at least fifty per cent of the persons entitled to vote cast their votes at the referendum, and of the votes cast at least eighty per cent were cast in favour of that issue.political activity of any person or any class of persons, or persons generally is unlawful.
    7. Where a referendum involves the merger of two or more regions, the issue shall not be taken to be determined unless at least sixty per cent of the persons entitled to vote at the referendum in each such region voted in favour of the merger of the two or more region; and according, clause (6) of this article shall not apply to the referendum.
    8. The President shall, under clause (1) of this article, and acting in accordance with the results of the referendum held under clauses (4) and (5) of this article, issue a constitutional instrument giving effect, or enabling effect to be given, to the results
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